Sales & marketing costs are a necessary part of operating a business. Expenses associated with sales and marketing such customer acquisition costs and the costs to service customers throughout the customer life-cycle, need to be included in the income statement of the financial projections template, and this model allows those cost to be estimated in detail and summarized.
R&D costs are a necessary part of developing new products for a business. Expenses associated with R&D such as staff costs, need to be included in the income statement of the financial projections template, and this model allows those cost to be estimated in detail and summarized.
New equity capital is included in the cash flow statement of the projection as a positive figure as it represents cash flowing into the business from investors. For example, if in year two the plan inject new capital of 5,000 to finance the purchase of new machinery, the figure of 5,000 should be included in the cash flow statement on the proceeds from the issue of new share capital line.
A business needs to understand that there is a difference between profit and cash. Eventually a business needs to be able to make a profit, however, providing it is properly financed and has adequate cash flow a business can survive for a considerable period of time without profits.
The gross profit and net profit margins are used as measures of profitability. The gross margin indicates whether the products produced and sold by the business are profitable, whereas the net margin indicates the profitability of the entire business taking into account all expenses.
Customized operating expense formulas can be used in lines 7 to 9 of the Financial Projections Template to link operating expenses to another template cell value such as revenue, this allows amendments to be made to the estimated operating expenses for each of the five years without having to manually enter each amount.